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Daylight saving time is bad for your health

We should go to year-round standard time, as the sun intended

Anisha Kalidindi

Molecular Biology

Ohio State University

Why do we have daylight saving time (DST), when it seems like it is constantly the butt of jokes? Why do we even have it if it appears to be bad for our health?

It's an old joke. One idea for DST was presented in 1784 by Benjamin Franklin in a satirical essay in the Journal de Paris as a way to save on candle wax. It was first implemented in Europe and the US during World War I. The implementation of DST has, across the last hundred years, been supported by purported reductions in energy usage and increases in daily productivity. While in the US it has taken a few different forms, in 1966 the Uniform Time Act cemented the current schedule of six months of standard time and six months of DST.

A portrait of Benjamin by Joseph Duplessis. Hanging in the National Portrait Gallery in Washington DC.

Good one Ben.

Other arguments in favor of DST are that it allows people more time to enjoy leisure activities during the summer months and that it leads to an increase in physical activity — but all of these remain controversial. A 2014 study did not find any difference in activity patterns between people living in Colorado, Utah, and New Mexico and residents of Arizona, a state which does not observe DST. Studies on energy usage have also had mixed results: one showed moderate savings in energy spending in Norway and Sweden, while another showed an increase in energy spending in Indiana. However, these results are hard to tease apart from natural energy savings that occur in months where people spend more time outside, regardless of DST.

Work and play are one thing, but it also matters that our bodies naturally run on approximately 24-hour cycles. Just like we have time zones so that we can keep timing consistent across the world, we also each have a system in our body that helps keep our physiological timing in check. This "master" clock is in the brain’s hypothalamus and is called the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). It can sync time throughout the body through hormonal and chemical signals.

Our internal clocks regulate many bodily processes that we know are important for health, such as our sleep-wake cycles, and regulate the physiology of our body in several ways, from our liver function to our immune system. These clocks are disrupted in many of the most devastating human diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, neurodegenerative disorders (i.e. Alzheimer’s disease), psychiatric disorders, and heart disease.

What sets the time for the SCN? There are many environmental cues that keep us "on time", such as temperature, food, and socialization, but one of the most important is light. The SCN receives input from specialized cells in the retina that relay light as a signal that the SCN can communicate to the rest of the body. Thus, light disruption can have catastrophic effects on the functionality of our biological clocks.

We are now gaining insight into the importance of keeping a healthy biological clock as a way to prevent, slow down, and even treat disease. And as we do, it is becoming clear that DST is harmful to our health.

While the body clock gradually adjusts in response to light changes as the earth rotates and the seasons change, the sudden change of time that comes with the beginning and end of DST can have substantial impacts on our body. Incidences of heart attacks increase around the time change in both spring and fall. Other examples of the poor health outcomes of DST include increases in traffic accidents, less sleep that can translate into higher workplace injury rates, and increases in emergency hospital visits.

A sundial pointing at about 11 o'clock in the morning.

Photo by boris misevic on Unsplash 

One study has also shown that people can not ever really adjust to DST, and that it interferes with our natural adaptation to the changing seasons. These acute effects permeate society and have both economic and physical costs to who inhabit places that use DST.

The chronic health effects of DST speak to a larger issue, which is that disrupting the body's natural rhythm negatively affects our health. Our bodies use a plethora of signals to keep our body on time. Hormonal cycles (the increases and decreases in hormones across the day) are shifted by light, and when out of sync these can have profound effects on our ability to process the energy we need from food and even get a good night’s rest. That's why jet lag can be so hard to recover from.

In a retrospective study, it was shown that during DST adolescents suffered from a large misalignment of their social and biological clocks and that this misalignment had an influence on sleep, mood, and behavior in the long term. A discrepancy in social and biological clocks is associated with risk of endocrine and cardiovascular disorders. Even decrease in life expectancy can be attributed to biological clock disruption.

Should we then stick to standard time throughout the year, rather than have DST year-round? This comes down to the use of time zones. While we may need them to function in a global society, even time zones cause some people to live on a different time than “solar time," the time of day calculated from the sun's position in the sky. A particular time zone’s clock time is set most closely to the eastern edge of the time zone's solar time. So, even when on standard time, people on the western edge of that time zone can be misaligned about an hour from their local solar time (here's a calculator to determine your local solar time). This discrepancy is exacerbated even more during DST. It has even been shown that cancer risk can increase depending on east-west positioning in a time zone. While standard time is not a perfect system, it is our best option to support biological clock alignment in a modern society where we can not just live based on the time of the sun.

There are negative health consequences to using DST, with very little benefit. Changing to year-round standard time is a relatively simple yet profoundly effective way to give people a chance to keep up a more coordinated biological clock. Experts who have been studying biological clocks for decades agree. So when "falling back" tonight, let’s hope that one day we will never have to spring forward again.

Comment Peer Commentary

We ask other scientists from our Consortium to respond to articles with commentary from their expert perspective.

Dori Grijseels

Neuroscience

University of Sussex

This article gives a great overview of all the  ways in which DST influences our health. I have to admit, I was only aware of a few of them, and did not realize to what extend the changing  of the clocks negatively affects us.

I think this article ties in nicely to a discussion that is currently being held in The Netherlands (where I am from). The EU is ending the clock changes,  and countries can decide what time zone they want to chose. Some people are still arguing that keeping standard time will be damaging for the  economy, but I think this article by @anisha makes a compelling argument as to why we should stick with it. Especially since our country is right on the western edge of a time zone, having DST year-round will have far-reaching consequences for our  health, as the article explains very nicely.

Thanks for this article - this is definitely a conversation that we need to be having at higher levels in the U.S. (can we please follow the EU’s lead in this?).

I am curious about the incidence of heart attacks. You said that there’s an increase in the incidence of heart attacks around the time of DST changes during the spring and fall, but I’ve heard other information before. Hidden Brain, an NPR podcast, had an episode on the importance of sleep, and they mentioned the effects of DST. They described, however, a 25% decrease in heart attacks when we gain an hour of sleep vs. a 25% increase when we lose an hour (around the 14 min mark). In researching this article, did you run across information that could explain this discrepancy?

Anisha Kalidindi responds:

While I am not sure what exact study NPR is referring to, I can definitely attest to a lot of variability in the literature regarding exactly what trends there are regarding health outcomes around time changes. There are so many factors to consider when interpreting the data in these retrospective studies, many times the concluded causation maybe a bit off.

From what I read about heart attacks, in particular, it seems that there was the strongest evidence to indicate a higher incidence in the spring as compared to the fall, as you noted. I think the spring increase could be related to loss of sleep, whereas the study that found a high incidence in the fall could be a result of stress on the body because of change in schedule, light, etc. Many of the effects of DST are a result of the dysregulation of the biological clock which while related to sleep is a separate physiological process. Even given some of the discrepant findings regarding human health outcomes, I think it is hard to deny as a whole that DST effects (both acute and chronic) impact health negatively!

Lorena Infante Lara responds:

Thanks for your response! Like with anything else, it seems this is a complex issue that needs some parsing out. #FundBasicResearch! 

Great article. I hear about how bad DST is supposed to be every 6 months but somehow never bothered to read up on it until this article. Personally, the extra hour was a huge help to me this past weekend as I had to get up much earlier than I normally would on a Sunday.

I actually read “This is how the light from your phone breaks your internal clock” right after reading this article and noticed that a lot of the same disorders mentioned here (metabolism, depression, heart problems, cancer) are brought up in that article as well, all linked to disrupted circadian rhythms. Thanks to the modern world, many of us are regularly exposed to internal clock disrupters including electricity, screens on TVs, computers, phones, the ease of traveling between time zones and lifestyles that cause us to sleep odd hours or even pull all-nighters. How do many of the studies done on the effects of DST take into account that many people’s internal clocks may already be disrupted? While we may as well get rid of DST since it doesn’t have any benefits, I suspect it won’t do much to fix these human health problems. But I would love to hear other’s thoughts on this.